Sustainability issues on a macro level concern international air transport, for example. This is the idealistic end of the scale and since these people try to depart from the usual standards, we can also call it the allocentric part of the lifestyle scale.
This can be on world level or limited to specific groups of people with a common interest communities. The Internet plays an important part in this respect and those tourists who make bookings through travel organizations may insist on bookings with certified hotels or tourists attractions as much as possible.
This also means that a tourist destination may be so named in spite of the fact that it is not ready to receive tourists — they simply come for one reason or another and it is precisely these types of cases that concern many of the negative effects tourism may have: Reflexivity can then be applied to tourists and their destination in the widest sense of the term and we can see what mutual influences and effects one has on the other.
The same holds true for a destination. Many entities become involved in forming a tourist destination and attracting tourists. As selectors tourists may insist on their lodging being certified in one way or another, now that Sustainable Tourism Certification systems exist in many countries.
Authenticity Reflexivity and Sustainability Translating this point to the level of sustainable development, we can distinguish the Impsources that are being managed specifically for tourists in socio-economic or environmental ways from the shared Impsources, whereby sustainability issues concern the locals in the first place and they have a direct responsibility in this respect.
A second reason for the call to involve tourists in sustainable development stems from the general socio-cultural shifts that mark the post-modern era.
The proper preparation based on the five levels mentioned here can produce a common denominator among tourists regarding their relationship with the tourist destination.
Here we must consider that an investigator, in the process of researching his subject, has an influence on it and therefore he can never get a fully objective result.
It should be clear that tourists from the allocentric side of the TLS prefer shared Impsources while those on the psychocentric side concentrate more on main and side Impsources. A destination consists of: As a result of a growing population and better economic conditions in the Western world later being followed by many Asian countriesmillions of people take long holidays and in the 21st century the holiday has become something sacred that nobody seems to be able to do without anymore, in great contrast to the developing world.
We encounter here a clear difference between tourists from the allocentric and psychocentric sides of the Tourist Lifestyle Scale.
Tourists are very keen to see real objective authenticity but in attempting to do so, they disturb the environment and the local culture and most likely all they will see is some staged authenticity instead or perhaps none at all.
When citing, please refer to the published version: Leisure Studies, 12 1 When a tourist feels and expresses that the greatest possible Marinus C.
Personal identity de formation among lifestyle travellers: The basic idea is quite similar to the Wiki concept, of which Wikipedia is the most famous.
Conducting fieldwork in Asia, particularly in India, was a strain upon my body, and this connection between my body, mind and spirit is largely lacking in my previous works.
From the point of view of sustainability there is a clear difference between the two and in addressing sustainable development issues one has to keep the two separate.The reflexive tourist in tourism social media The value of reflexivity.
The tourism industry is a space of contested (im)balances of power, controversial practices (for example slum tourism), and exploitation. Humanistically, the responsibility falls on tourism participants to strive to improve these realities.
Leisure Studies, 32(3),DOI: / Reflections on reflexivity in leisure and tourism studies Scott A. Cohen University of Surrey, United Kingdom While leisure and tourism researchers have come some way in addressing issues of reflexivity in their own research, this effort towards engaging with positionality.
Knowledge and Power in Collaborative Research presents a range of critical, reflexive strategies for understanding and tackling the challenges emanating from the tensions that arise in the meeting between different participants, knowledge forms and knowledge interests.
Dupuis (, p) suggests that a rigorous reflexive approach in qualitative leisure research will be characterised by ‘continuous, intentional and systematic self-introspection beginning before we ever enter the field and continuing throughout the writing of our stories’.
Simone Fullagar and Erica Wilson (). Critical Pedagogies: A Reflexive Approach to Knowledge Creation in Tourism and Hospitality Studies. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 19(1), p.
The reflexive approach helps us to get a clearer view of how tourism can work: the pivot on which tourism hinges is the moment when a tourist enjoys an attraction, in other words when a tourist has the sensory intake of impact calories (Impcal) from a tourism impact source (Impsource).Download